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COX-1, COX-2 Inflammation

There are several COXs (Cyclooxygenases) produced by the body and COX-1 and COX-2 are the most important. COX-1 produces Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1,) which causes pain and inflammation, but also plays a role in protecting the stomach lining. COX-2 produces PGE2, which causes pain and inflammation, but it does not have a role in protecting the stomach lining.

Most NSAIDs (Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs) like Aspirin, Advil, Aleve, etc., inhibit (block) both COX-1 and COX-2 and so, while they relieve pain and inflammation, they can cause varying degrees of gastric ulcerations, perforations or obstructions in one-third to almost one-half of patients taking them.

This is why substances that selectively inhibit COX-2 without interfering with the protective aspects of COX-1 are preferable.

Problem with prescription COX-2 drugs:

Prescription COX-2 inhibitors are bio-chemically engineered substances and have been shown to cause serious cardiovascular effects including heart attacks and death. A recent review published in the journal, Pharmacotherapy concluded that COX-2 inhibitors, like COX-1 inhibitors can cause kidney failure, especially in susceptible individuals.

Why plant-based COX-2 Inhibitors?

Because we need to selectively inhibit COX-2 while preserving the stomach-lining protective function of COX-1. We also need to avoid the serious potential side effects of prescription COX-2 inhibitors. Plant-based COX-2 inhibitors, like those in PreArthos, also have cardiac and gastro-intestinal protective properties. These natural ingredients have no reported adverse effects on kidneys. So, PreArthos and PreArthos + are recommended for effective and safe relief of inflammatory pain and to enhance the use of joints.

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Hundreds of physicians in the US have successfully used these clinically - proven, all - natural therapeutic formulations in tens of thousands of patients.


I am 48 years old and like most others my age, I was increasingly concerned about my rising cholesterol level. I was skeptical about using an herbal product as treatment but after hearing about PreLipid I gave it a try, and the results speak for themselves!

When I got tested, my high cholesterol levels were a shock and a real wake up call for me. I did not want to take a prescription drug fearing that it would interact negatively with what I was already taking. I found out about PreLipid from a friend and now my cholesterol is back in a normal range.

I dropped my cholesterol level 30 points in just three months. What more can I say - the secret is out! I strongly recommend PreLipid to anybody that is serious about their health.

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Pre-disease or early disease is when we have a real opportunity to reduce the burden of chronic disease through evidence-based botanical therapeutic formulations. I believe that this is also the place that many botanical remedies will prove to have the most impact because of their milder, yet optimal therapeutic effects and a almost non-existent side effect profile.

Tieraona Low Dog
MD, Director of Education for the Program in Integrative Medicine at the University of Arizona

I’ve recommended PMI’s products with very good results for almost a year now. As people of science, we’re trained to look at evidence and only use therapies that are proven to be effective, and safe

Edward Laub
MD. Princeton, NJ

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